This article cloud have been named Halal and kosher slaughter of animals, Religious slaughter of animals, Ritual slaughter of animals, Exsanguination, etc., however, as the kosher meat products are acquiring rapidly increasing share of the U.S. meat market, we decided on the above title. On the personal side, I was first intrigued by the ritual slaughter of animals while one of my students from Saudi Arabia invited me to a family dinner. The main dish was served with a pair of eyes, situated in its middle. The host talked about how he personally selected the lamb, prayed, and, after quieting the lamb by gently striking her neck, cut her throat. Then he casually leaned toward the dish, retrieved one of the lamb’s eyes, and inserted it into his mouth.
Halal and kosher products
The halal and kosher markets covers almost 100,000 products in the United States worth about $100 billion. The halal and kosher products are certified by various Muslim authorities and rabbinical commissions on a year-to-year basis for a fee that is contractually kept secret. The enlarged logo of the halal-certified food products is shown in the above picture. Most (but not all) kosher products are marked with small circled U or K. The discussion that follows pertains only to the meat obtained by the religious slaughter of animals.
Ritual slaughter of animals
After the mechanical stunning equipment was first developed in the 1920s rendering the animal unconscious, it was shortly afterwards adapted as the national standard by secular, but not by the Islamic (halal) and Jewish (kosher) slaughterhouses. In these religious abattoirs, butchers follow rituals prescribed by their respective religions which differ in details, however, both the Islamic and the Judaistic rituals require that the neck of the slaughtered animal must be cut while the animal is fully conscious.
During the ritual slaughter, after the neck’s arteries and trachea are cut, the still conscious animal is bled to death. In the major religious slaughterhouses in the United States, cattle is prodded into a rotating cage, their necks are slit open, and their bodies are thrown on the abattoir’s floor on the other side of the rotating drum. There some calves and cows regain their feet. With blood streaming out of their severed arteries and and with tracheae and esophagi hanging out, they roam the blood soaked premises of the slaughterhouse before they succumb to their wounds.
The rotating cage was hailed as the major humane improvement of the animal slaughter, as before the cattle was hang by the hind leg and forced to raise the head to expose its neck: ‘In a kosher plant I visited, the hoist was operated until the steer was hanging suspended by the leg with its face partly on the floor. The slaughterhouse worker turned the hose on the animal’s face and neck and then I witnessed something that I could scarcely believe. The packing-house employee plunged both his hands into the steer’s eyes until the eyes were displaced by being pushed back into the head. He then grasped the sides of the eye sockets and held the animal that way while the man who performs the kosher slaughter stepped forward to cut the steer’s throat. The hoist was then operated again until the animal’s head was several feet from the floor and the animal was moved along the motor driven line, hanging head downward, its full body weight suspended by the shackled hind leg, every part of the body quivering. While the struggling was going on, the shackle was released and the steer was dumped on the floor, still moving convulsively.
‘When a cattle driver has difficulties with a steer, a long heavy stick is forced into its rectum. This immobilizes the animal; its entire spine is arched and its body quivers with pain (Freedman, 1970).
But can they suffer?
The controversy about animal suffering has a long history. In his Summa Theologiae (1267-1273) Saint Thomas Aquinas maintains that the killing of animals is in congruence with Biblical precepts and concludes that ‘God does not ask humans what they do with their oxen and other animals.’ Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), an intellectual heir of David Hume, incisive and compassionate, in his famous polemics against Saint Thomas Aquinas concludes that the question is not whether animals can think, but can they suffer?
Some countries as e.g., Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, banned the ritual slaughter of animals. In the Great Britain, the British Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) reporting to the government, certified that the way Halal and Kosher meat is produced causes severe suffering to animals. Owners of both the Halal and Kosher slaughterhouses, rabbis, Muslim clerics and their congregations, decried the FAWC recommendation that this particular torture of animals should be outlawed. In the United States, the the animal rights organization People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) released a DVD, capturing the religious slaughter of cattle at the AgriProcessors plant in Iowa that can be viewed at www.peta.org. These humanitarian efforts were resolutely opposed by the Muslim and Jewish religious organizations. The Muslims claimed that people who oppose these ritual slaughters are influenced by the contemporary anti-Islamic social climate while the religious Jewish communities argued that their opponents are anti-Semitic, self-hating Jews, or Hitler-sympathizers.
Describing the kosher slaughter, Rabbi Doniel Shur of the Heights Jewish Center Synagogue asserts that the kosher way of slaughtering ‘is so fast, it totally takes in the jugular vein and the nerves,’ so the animal is totally unaware of what is happening. He attributes the PETA charges to anti-Semitism. “100% anti-Semitism” he says. Rabbi Gersion Appel at the Jewish Learning site adds that ‘Administering electric shock to an animal prior to shehitah [kosher slaughtering] is prohibited, because it incapacitates the animal and renders it a trefah [animal unfit to eat]. It is forbidden to eat the meat of such an animal. The prohibition extends, as well, to administering an anesthetic, in the form of a drug and the like, since it may endanger the health and life of the animal and render it trefah prior to shehitah.’ On the other side of this controversy, Rabbi Eugen Kullman, Vice President, Friends of Animals Society proclaims that ‘We are united against the slaughter of conscious animals, consider it a horror in itself, and an abomination when coupled with the vicious devices used to restrain conscious livestock. We have nothing to gain, neither on earth nor in heaven, by slaughtering G-d’s creatures while they are conscious.
Bias of the funded studies or studies related to ideology or religion
The “scientific” studies of topics related to ideology, religion, or the funded studies, are frequently biased. The fact that a study is published in a scientific journal does not per se guarantee the veracity of the reported results. Thus, e.g., Sir Ronald Fisher, who was a recipient of numerous research grants from the tobacco companies, published studies that smoking tobacco is not detrimental to health. The pro-shehitah faction frequently quotes published studies claiming that cut into the throat is next to painless and extinguishes the life quickly. Rabbi Tzvi Weinreb asserts that ‘kosher slaughtering has been proven over centuries and in scientific studies to be a humane process.’ Perusing studies on the shehitah slaughter, there were several issues that strain one’s credulity.
The agony of dying
Suicide by cutting carotid arteries is extremely rare and we can peruse studies on the agony of human suicide, as these studies are not likely affected by either monetary grants or by religious beliefs pertaining to halal or kosher slaughter of animals. There are several studies on this issue, among them the study by Rhyne, et al. (1995) Dimensions of suicide: perceptions of lethality, time, and agony, published in the Suicide